13. "Warnings" (of Churchill and Sorge's) were useless. It is customary to say the Soviet could prepare for the German attack because they got warnings from an outside source, Churchill and from a talented spy Sorge who worked in Japan. In reality for Stalin Churchill was both a ruthless enemy of communism and a man in big trouble. A man who wants his enemy to fight elsewhere, preferably with someone who they hate both so he can profit from their struggle. Also Churchill's warning wasn't a warning at all. While they corresponded quite a bit there is one specific letter what is usually sold as warning. This letter however says: the Germans wanted to regroup three panzer divisions from Romania to Poland but for the Yugoslav situation they changed their minds. Which translates to: "the road towards Berlin wasn't secured, pls Stalin attack now, with sugar on top pls". Sorge on the other hand was basically a traitor. On two level. On one hand during a purge all his coworkers and bosses were shot or shoved into gulag camps but first they secured signed confessions of them where they told Sorge (and each other) is the enemy of the Soviet union. Second Sorge was called back to "vacation" (to purge him too) but he denied the "offer". So as a traitor they didn't believe him in the first place. He also sent two warnings. The first said the Germans will attack but after they done with England. The second (a little before Barbarossa) says the Germans will attack. At that moment the two reports cancelled each others, also they didn't give a crap about him, so his warnings were disregarded.
14. Motivation - the ideology behind the planned offense, the world revolution, long term planning. Not sure what to write here because this is a good sum of things. But. Marx and Engels predicted long wars which will reshape the world and then Lenin said the great imperialist war will bring the world revolution with itself. But that failed so they said a second great imperialist war will do that so they started working toward that goal. They built up the war machine while they supported communist movements and conflicts in the west. Well, I think that is all.