02/22/2021 (Mon) 20:50:31
Trying to look into the evolution of the yurt. Searched the term "yurt" and "tent" in a couple of books (quite a few actually), and tried to find something on the net too.
Problem is what archaeology can produce, that's little to none, so at best we only have speculations. Even the first layout of the most basic dwelling is contested, was it round or rectangular. Or that also can be discussed if they were dugout or entirely above surface. Making an A-frame is pretty convenient, just lean couple of logs next to two trees, lay a ridgepole over them, then lean sticks to the ridgepole. Digging a big hole in the ground is very work intensive and that also needs some roof.
The link above to the Hungarian site describes two possible ways for the evolution of the yurt, or rather two phases, one for shape, and the second is the application of the shape to a tent. These can be followed on the pics above.
The starting point is a dugout, the fireplace in one and, with flat or somewhat declining roof. Then the bottom of the pit became flatter and wider, the walls vertical, the fireplace got in the middle, the roof became an actual structure. Then the dugout became more shallow, and they added a small wall, bearing the roof. Then the whole thing stood above surface.
From the tepee the evolution of the dwelling branched in two, to the round stationary house, and toward the round, walled tents. The tents developed into the straight roofed Mongol ger and the curved roofed Turkic "uy" - these are the two types of yurt we know today.
I found an interesting tidbit: we know the Scythians also lived in yurts (for example from Herodotus), and archaeologist found that in towns they captured from the Greeks, they settled in and built pseudo-yurt houses from permanent materials. They preserved inner layout too, like the placing of the beds and the fireplace.