The Eco is the proposed name for the common currency that the West African Monetary Zone (WAMZ) plans to introduce in the framework of Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS).
>For the Eco to be implemented, ten convergence criteria, set out by the West African Monetary Institute (WAMI), must be met. >These criteria are divided into four primary and six secondary criteria. >Up to the fiscal year 2011, only Ghana has been able to meet all the primary criteria in any single fiscal year.
The four primary criteria to be achieved by each member country are: <A single-digit inflation rate at the end of each year. <A fiscal deficit of no more than 4% of the GDP. <A central bank deficit-financing of no more than 10% of the previous year's tax revenues. <Gross external reserves that can give import cover for a minimum of three months.
The six secondary criteria to be achieved by each member country are: <Prohibition of new domestic default payments and liquidation of existing ones. <Tax revenue should be equal to or greater than 20 percent of the GDP. <Wage bill to tax revenue equal to or less than 35 percent. <Public investment to tax revenue equal to or greater than 20 percent.
>>28012 Was she charged with assault at least? Those priest I met and actually spoke, they were bright in mind but I don't hold priests in general in high esteem. Despite this I feel I could beat that woman without any regret.
>>28032 >das Fühl when you'll never be a factory owner with your neger workers
>Eco Maybe they shouldn't start with common currency, but establish a trade zone between them, a common market. Ofc one currency on it to play with makes things easier. Gaddafi was a big propagator of united Africa and such initiatives, he turned away from the Arab world in favour of African, he wished to make Libya the leading country of the political and economical changes.
>>28035 The priest is okay. The woman was taken to a police station and the incident registered. She has bipolar disorder and claims to have panicked after seeing security guards coming after her when she tried to get close to him, though footage shows no such thing.
These threads aren't successful but... ... I saw this show, watched twice. Bretty darn good. It's about the lost Franklin expedition to map the Northwestern Passage. Some mystery and supernatural was added but I believe their real story had to be a nightmare as well. Highly recommended.
>>28010 You should read the manga instead, the animu was made just to advertise the manga so they left a lot of things out. Of course not everyone is autistic enough for reading mango but try it if you want.
Decided to take blink at Good Doctor. It would be funnier with House as the main character. It's about an autistic surgeon at the beginning of his career and the difficulties he has to face. On one hand this show is too mainstream to be KC-tier, on the other hand the main character is too irritating, hmm the actor is too irritating with his high pitched voice. Tho I might watch few more episodes.
As I promised I'll write about this book. It's quite lengthy but you'll reach the end if you read at your own pace. Most of the book isn't dense for me, an economic layman, with the exception of the parts about trade, which left me confused. I'll write what I manage to understand. The author wrote it to argue in historiographical debates and make some points, but I read it just to add to my historical knowledge.
I'll write in sections, at most one a day so Bernd doesn't get overwhelmed, and will try to make the sections more thematic rather than just a sythesis of each chapter, as Hitler himself suggests in Mein Kampf for how one should mentally organize knowledge. I want to write about:
-Trade and controls of foreign currency and raw materials -Budgets and revenue -Agrarianism -Businessmen and workers -Consumer goods -The fate of different industries -Rearmament -General progression from 1933 to 1939
If I give up on writing I hope at least to cover the prewar period. I also hope to write on: -Armaments priorities until 1940
Much effort was spent to propagate information and make the peasantry adopt modern farming methods. Increasing yields and saving the balance of trade were contradicting aims but imported inputs in animal nutrition were successfully replaced without a drop in production. Protectionism, gradually implemented since Bismarck’s time, and import quotas set up in the last Weimar years were continued and expanded. Prices for agricultural produce were now determined by the RNS rather than the market. It hoped to direct production and increase the rural standard of living with them. Price increases in 1934 were met with widespread discontent (1934 was a crisis year), and from then on political pressure forced the RNS to keep them low. This backfired when demand rose as the economy recovered, leading to some shortages of meat and butter, not because of lack of production but because higher prices would have been necessary to stimulate production and lower demand. In 1938 higher prices would be paid to dairy suppliers but consumer prices weren’t raised, stimulating production but doing nothing with demand. There was also some subtle rationing. The RNS administered the food supply and stocks.
An escape from land hunger was the addition of farmland to the Reich. An increment of 7-8 million ha to the existing 34 million would be enough. Thus, with a rational basis, agrarians were enthusiastic supporters of military expansionism and the Drang nach Osten, which would serve the same purpose as previous European colonialisms and, in their mold, reserve a secondary status for the conquered populations. Herbert Backe, future Minister, mentioned in his 1926 dissertation “The Russian grain economy as the basis for the people and economy of Russia” an uplifting of Russia’s farmland through ‘the infiltration of foreign ethnic elements of higher quality that will form themselves into an upper class and do battle with the mass of the population. The reservoir [for this infiltration] will be "The People without Space"’. (p.180) Walther Darré, who headed the Ministry for a long time, spoke to an audience of RNS officials in early 1936 directly of settlement all the way to the Urals: “The natural area for settlement by the German people is the territory to the east of the Reich's boundaries up to the Urals, bordered in the south by the Caucasus, Caspian Sea, Black Sea and the watershed which divides the Mediterranean basin from the Baltic and the North Sea. We will settle this space, according to the law that a superior people always has the right to conquer and to own the land of an inferior people”. (p.198)
The agrarians’ vision would be enshrined into law by the Reichserbhofgesetz, proposed in September 1933. In its first draft it created a new category of estate, the Erbhof, owned by physically able gentiles with a farmsize of 7.5-125 ha who applied in the Erbhofrolle. Erbhoefe were to be protected from the market: their sale and use as mortgage security were banned, providing both security and severe constraints, and the debt of their owners (6 – 9 billion Reichsmark) would be paid collectively through the Rentenbank Kreditansalt, which would tax all Erbhoefe. As this was harmful to those with little debt they’d be compensated with preferential treatment in the settlement of East Prussia. This faced severe opposition, with the Ministry of Economic Affairs (RWM) complaining that excessive protection would sap the peasants’ initiative and the Reichsbank refusing to accept the dismantling of conventional rural credit. A compromise was reached and the collective debt relief was abandoned. Though Schacht’s Reichsbank obstructed credit for Erbhoefe, courts followed a loose interpretation of the mortgage restriction (and even the restriction on sales) and the Ministry of Food and Agriculture provided grants and loans, allowing rural financing to continue normally. Another point of contention were the new rules of inheritance, which intimately intruded on old regional customs and infuriated the peasants themselves. Undivided properties would pass down to a male heir (Anerbenrecht), as was the custom in northern Germany, but there peasants used to have the freedom to make other arrangements and often compensated siblings who didn’t receive the main property. In south and western Germany, partible inheritance was the norm and the law was received with “blank hostility”. The restrictions on female inheritance, too, were unprecedented. Once again courts were lenient and agrarians compromised, accepting shared ownership within the first generation. The principle of undivided inheritance also drew fears of a decline in fertility.
Through its meticulous regulations and oversight of farm life the RNS created resentment from peasants. Its centralization of milk deliveries was met in September 1935 with a “milk strike” and an increase in the black market. But Tooze says the peasants weren’t fully in the right: after receiving for decades lavish protection from the state, it now had the right to demand something back from them. The RNS did achieve an increase in rural living standards to above pre-Depression levels, higher food production and a more resilient rural economy. Tooze excuses some of its shortcomings on the difficulties of handling a society in transition. Germany didn’t attempt as radical of a modernization of its agriculture as the Soviet Union because it postponed a full resolution to the matter, like several others, until after the impending war.
All right. I'm gonna need some time to catching up. I still wanna reply on the planned economy sidetrack, and still have to read Budget.
So planned economy: >>28026 >reality >distortions That depends how we view prices and values. If we view them through the glasses of capitalism, where supply and demand will determine largely then sure, they will be distorted why not? But why assume that the normality is on the side of capitalism? In fact prices are distorted largely there, they related more to what people are willing to pay for an item (based on abstract and sometimes arbitrary values, for example why people pay X amount for an iCrap when the same chinkshit are sold for the low price of X/10?). We could translate the "worth" of any item to how much energy was spent to produce that item. There, that's an objective value. Compared to that the prices we have to deal with in our lives are way out of touch with reality. In fact prices in our economy are the tools of speculators and people who want to get rich by exploiting and conning others. But what is money? A tool to make the exchange of goods and/or services easier. Here and now however it is source of wealth and status (even money can be sold and bought, can be speculated with). In planned economy there is the potential to restore it's original purpose. Now we are threading on the hypothetical, but ofc in planned economy prices can be arbitrary too (compared to a "true" value), or at least changed depending on the situation.
>>28038 >arbitary values >objective value Value is, at least in part, subjective. Prices in voluntary exchanges reflect, among other things, this subjectiveness of value. A planned economy has no access to those prices and thus, insufficient information for its calculations.